Design principles

The principles of design are the recipe for a good work of art. Principles combine the elements to create an aesthetic placement of things that will produce a good design.

Awareness of the elements and principles in design is the first step in creating successful visual compositions.

These principles are used in all visual design fields, including graphic design, industrial design, architecture and fine art.

Balance is a feeling of visual equality in shape, form, value, and colour. Objects, values, colours, textures, shapes, forms, can be used in creating a balance in a composition. Balance is the weighted relationship between the Design principles visual elements.

Harmony – brings together a composition with similar units, it is the unity of all visual elements. Harmony in design is similarity of the components.

Harmony is achieved through the sensitive balance of variety and unity. Harmony is when some or many of the components such as furniture, drapes in a room share a common trait or two. A common trait could be: colour, shape, texture, material, theme, size, or functionality. For example a drapery could share the same colour that is on a pillow or wallpaper. The human brain usually likes design harmony.

Proportion is Design principles the ratio of one part of the composition to another. Proportion involves the relationship of size between the objects.

Proportion also depends on functionality of object. For the best proportion between a room and furniture, the sizes of furniture depends on the size of the room.

In interior design, proportions like the floor to ceiling may be used to obtain good visual appeal, functionality in home design.

Repetition is the use of an element or elements more than one time in a single composition. Any element that occurs is generally echoed, often with some variation to keep interest.

For example, placing Design principles four plant pots in a row and evenly spaced apart on a floor produces an organized look.

Unity is the organization of elements and principles into a whole. It is achieved by the use of balance, repetition and harmony. Two objects like living room and dining room can be unified by giving similar features like a hardwood floor design.

Unity helps the objects like furniture look like these belongs together.

The principles of design are as varied as attitudes regarding modern design. They differ both between the schools of thought that influence design, and between individual designers. Successful design incorporates Design principles the use of the principles and elements to serve the designer’s purpose and visual goals. There are no rules for their use.


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